Advancements in genetic testing to identify predisposition for hereditary breast cancer (HBC) mean that it is important to understand the incremental costs and benefits of the new technologies compared with current testing strategies. This study aimed to (1) identify and critically appraise existing economic evidence for BRCA1/2 mutation testing for HBC and (2) establish whether economic evidence was used to inform national guidance in England and Wales. A telephone interview with diagnostic laboratories (n=14) offering BRCA1/2 mutation testing identified that 9 (64%) used Sanger DNA sequencing with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and two offered next generation sequencing. A systematic review identified 15 economic studies that evaluated: genetic testing for HBC (5 studies); preventive management options for women at risk of HBC (8 studies); and different laboratory approaches for BRCA1 testing (2 studies). These evaluations were not relevant to U.K. practice, and therefore the development of national guidance using a risk threshold to trigger BRCA1/2 testing has not been informed by existing economic evidence. The lack of economic evidence supporting the current risk threshold for national guidance has implications for the efficient use of healthcare resources and the design of economic evaluations of new technologies for BRCA1/2 testing.