The protective effects of live Lactobacillus paracasei NFRI 7415 on alcoholic liver disease were investigated. Male Fischer 344 rats were fed a control diet (CD), an ethanol diet (ED) (35.8% of total energy from ethanol), or an ethanol diet containing 20% live Lb. paracasei NFRI 7415 (10(7) cfu/g) (LD) for 10 weeks. The results indicated that live Lb. paracasei NFRI 7415 reduced the total cholesterol concentration of the plasma and liver in the rats fed the LD. The level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the plasma and liver of the LD group was higher than in the ED group. Chronic alcohol consumption decreased the level of n-3 fatty acid in the plasma and liver of the ED group. These results indicated that live Lb. paracasei NFRI 7415 can adjust the fatty acid composition of the plasma and liver, and that it is possible to decrease liver damage due to chronic alcohol intake.