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Review
, 17 (2), 1571-601

Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines I. Monomeric Anthocyanins and Their Color Expression

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Review

Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines I. Monomeric Anthocyanins and Their Color Expression

Fei He et al. Molecules.

Abstract

Originating in the grapes, monomeric anthocyanins in young red wines contribute the majority of color and the supposed beneficial health effects related to their consumption, and as such they are recognized as one of the most important groups of phenolic metabolites in red wines. In recent years, our increasing knowledge of the chemical complexity of the monomeric anthocyanins, their stability, together with the phenomena such as self-association and copigmentation that can stabilize and enhance their color has helped to explain their color representation in red wine making and aging. A series of new enological practices were developed to improve the anthocyanin extraction, as well as their color expression and maintenance. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the studies of the monomeric anthocyanins in red wines, emphasizing their origin, occurrence, color enhancing effects, their degradation and the effect of various enological practices on them.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Structures of the monomeric anthocyanins naturally occurring in Vitis vinifera wines and their corresponding anthocyanidins [12].
Figure 2
Figure 2
Structures of normal acetylated anthocyanins in red wines [57,58,59,60].
Figure 3
Figure 3
The pH-dependant equilibria among the various structural forms of anthocyanins in red wines [12,75,76,93,94,95,96,97]. The groups of R1 and R2 are listed in Figure 1.
Figure 4
Figure 4
The structures of the major cofactors naturally occurring in young red wines [12,126,127,128,129,130,131,132].

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