Impact of integration of hygiene kit distribution with routine immunizations on infant vaccine coverage and water treatment and handwashing practices of Kenyan mothers

J Infect Dis. 2012 Mar;205 Suppl 1:S56-64. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir779.


Integration of immunizations with hygiene interventions may improve use of both interventions. We interviewed 1361 intervention and 1139 comparison caregivers about hygiene practices and vaccination history, distributed water treatment and hygiene kits to caregivers during infant vaccination sessions in intervention clinics for 12 months, and conducted a followup survey of 2361 intervention and 1033 comparison caregivers. We observed significant increases in reported household water treatment (30% vs 44%, P < .0001) and correct handwashing technique (25% vs 51%, P < .0001) in intervention households and no changes in comparison households. Immunization coverage improved in both intervention and comparison infants (57% vs 66%, P = .04; 37% vs 53%, P < .0001, respectively). Hygiene kit distribution during routine immunizations positively impacted household water treatment and hygiene without a negative impact on vaccination coverage. Further study is needed to assess hygiene incentives, implement alternative water quality indicators, and evaluate the impact of this intervention in other settings.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Delivery of Health Care, Integrated*
  • Female
  • Hand Disinfection* / standards
  • Health Facilities
  • Humans
  • Hygiene*
  • Immunization*
  • Infant
  • Kenya
  • Male
  • Mothers*
  • Water Quality*
  • Young Adult