Clinical impact and predictors of carotid artery in-stent restenosis

J Neurol. 2012 Sep;259(9):1896-902. doi: 10.1007/s00415-012-6436-3. Epub 2012 Feb 9.


To assess the incidence and clinical significance as well as predictors of in-stent restenosis (ISR) after carotid artery stenting (CAS) diagnosed with serial duplex sonography investigations. We analyzed 215 CAS procedures that had clinical and serial carotid duplex ultrasound investigations. The incidence of in-stent restenosis (ISR) and periprocedural as well as long-term clinical complications were recorded. The influence of an ISR on clinical complication was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and clinical risk factors for the development of an ISR with multivariate logistic regression. During a median follow-up time of 33.4 months (interquartile range 15.3-53.7) an ISR of ≥70% was detected in 12 (6.1%) of 215 arteries (mean age of 68.1 ± 9.8 years, 71.6% male). The combined stroke and death rate during long-term follow-up was significantly higher in the group with an ISR [odds ratio (OR): 3.59, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.50-8.59, p = 0.004]. After applying multivariate logistic regression analysis contralateral carotid occlusion (OR 10.11, 95% CI 2.06-49.63, p = 0.004), carotid endarterectomy (CEA) restenosis (OR 8.87, 95% CI 1.68-46.84, p = 0.010) and postprocedural carotid duplex ultrasound with a PSV ≥120 cm/s (OR 6.33, 95% CI 1.27-31.44, p = 0.024) were independent predictors of ISR. ISR after CAS during long-term follow-up is associated with a higher proportion of clinical complications. A close follow-up is suggested especially in those patients with the aforementioned independent predictors of an ISR. Against the background of a lacking established treatment of ISR, these findings should be taken into account when offering CAS as a treatment alternative to CEA.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angioplasty / methods
  • Carotid Stenosis / complications*
  • Carotid Stenosis / mortality
  • Carotid Stenosis / surgery
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Coronary Restenosis / diagnosis*
  • Coronary Restenosis / etiology*
  • Endarterectomy / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex