We followed postoperatively 75 patients who underwent ureterosigmoidostomy between 1942 and 1987. Of the patients 30 were asked to undergo routine examination, including fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy with biopsy and analysis of a urine-feces slurry for nitrate, nitrite and nitrosamines in comparison to 20 control volunteers. After a mean observation of 14 years 7 months (1 to 46 years) 64.5% of the patients had bilaterally normal kidneys without any previous complications, 77.5% of the renal units being normal. Sigmoidoscopic biopsy revealed 3 carcinomas at the ureterocolonic junction resulting in an 8.5 to 10.5-fold increased risk of colon carcinoma compared to the general population. The excretion of nitrite and N-nitrosamines was increased, and nitrate excretion was decreased compared to healthy control volunteers, suggesting endogenous formation of nitrosamines by bacterially reduced nitrate and endogenous amines. The urological long-term results of ureterosigmoidostomy are similar to those of conduits. However, the increased incidence of colon carcinoma is not yet proved to be higher than in conduits.