Difficult Airway Society Guidelines for the management of tracheal extubation

Anaesthesia. 2012 Mar;67(3):318-40. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.2012.07075.x.


Tracheal extubation is a high-risk phase of anaesthesia. The majority of problems that occur during extubation and emergence are of a minor nature, but a small and significant number may result in injury or death. The need for a strategy incorporating extubation is mentioned in several international airway management guidelines, but the subject is not discussed in detail, and the emphasis has been on extubation of the patient with a difficult airway. The Difficult Airway Society has developed guidelines for the safe management of tracheal extubation in adult peri-operative practice. The guidelines discuss the problems arising during extubation and recovery and promote a strategic, stepwise approach to extubation. They emphasise the importance of planning and preparation, and include practical techniques for use in clinical practice and recommendations for post-extubation care.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Airway Extubation / adverse effects
  • Airway Extubation / methods*
  • Humans
  • Laryngeal Masks
  • Larynx / physiology
  • Piperidines / pharmacology
  • Reflex
  • Remifentanil


  • Piperidines
  • Remifentanil