Objective: To evaluate factors associated with labor pain and delivery outcomes.
Methods: From Jul. to Dec. 2009, 111 normal singleton cephalic presentation pregnancies (including 5 elderly parturient) who delivered at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University were enrolled in this study to evaluate the relationship between factors of labor pain and delivery outcomes. The labor pain of latent phase and active phase were scored by the visual analogue scale (VAS). Factors associated with pain included the age of parturient, the number of gravidity and parity, occupation, education profile, dwell location, etc. The questionnaire was designed by ourselves. Childbirth awareness, psychological preparation of delivery, emotional controllability, couple relationship, the relationship of parturient and mother-in-law, the relationship of parturient and parents, family economic status, use of sedative during the labor process and delivery outcomes were collected and analyzed.
Results: (1) Factors associated with pain: in the latent phase, the rate of moderate labour pain of 1/5 in women with more than 35 years old was statistically lower than 76.4% (81/106) in suitable age group (P < 0.05). The women with a good understanding about delivery had a statistically lower rate of moderate pain of 64.7% (44/68) than 88.4% (38/43) of those having a poor understanding (P < 0.05). The women who had a better couple relationship had a significantly higher rate of moderate pain of 77.2% (78/101) than 4/10 of those who had a general couple relationship (P < 0.05). There was significant difference in rate of moderate pain between pluripara group (50.0%, 11/22) and primipara group (79.8%, 71/89; P < 0.01). In the active phase, women with tense, scared or a poor emotion control expressed significantly severe labour pain (59.0%, 36/61) than 35.6% (16/45) in well-prepared group. The rate of severe labour pain in good control of emotion group of 44.8% (43/96) was a statistically lower than 9/10 in poor control group. There was a statistically lower severe labour pain in women given by sedatives (29.2%, 7/24) than 54.9% (45/82) in women without sedatives treatment (P < 0.05). (2) Delivery outcomes: in latent phase, the rates of fetal distress and cesarean section were 36.6% (30/82) and 39.0% (32/82) in moderate pain group, which were significantly higher than 13.8% (4/29) and 17.2% (5/29) in mild pain group. In active phase, the rate of fetal distress, cesarean section and postpartum hemorrhage were 36.5% (19/52), 40.4% (21/52) and 13.5% (7/52) in severe pain group, which were significantly higher than [18.5% (10/54); 20.4% (11/54); 0] in moderate pain group (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Women with poor understanding of delivery, tense, scared, poor emotion control, young age and uniparous have severe labour pain. Sedative use could alleviate pain in active phase. Women with mild labour pain have good delivery outcomes.