In 2010 a bundled payment system for diabetes care, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease care, and vascular risk management was introduced in the Netherlands. Health insurers now pay a single fee to a contracting entity, the care group, to cover all of the primary care needed by patients with these chronic conditions. The initial evaluation of the program indicated that it improved the organization and coordination of care and led to better collaboration among health care providers and better adherence to care protocols. Negative consequences included dominance of the care group by general practitioners, large price variations among care groups that were only partially explained by differences in the amount of care provided, and an administrative burden caused by outdated information and communication technology systems. It is too early to draw conclusions about the effects of the new payment system on the quality or the overall costs of care. However, the introduction of bundled payments might turn out to be a useful step in the direction of risk-adjusted integrated capitation payments for multidisciplinary provider groups offering primary and specialty care to a defined group of patients.