Efavirenz (EFV) is primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 and to a lesser extent by CYP3A4. Drugs that significantly inhibit or induce these enzymes would then be expected to increase or lower the levels of EFV potentially resulting in toxicity or therapeutic failure, respectively. The constituents of Ginkgo biloba extract have been demonstrated to induce gene expression of the CYP450 enzymes. We report a case in which a potential drug-herb interaction may have led to virological breakthrough in a patient that was maintained on the same regimen for 10 years. Therefore, a drug-herbal interaction may be expected when these agents are taken concurrently, and we advise clinicians to avoid this combination when possible.