Objective: To determine exposure to hyper- and hypoglycemia using blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) profiles in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) with residual β-cell function during the first year of insulin treatment.
Research design and methods: Blinded, 3-7 day CGM profiles were obtained in 16 short-term T1D patients (age 8-18 years, T1D duration 6-52 weeks) who had peak C-peptide levels ranging from 0.46 to 1.96 nmol/L during a mixed-meal tolerance test. Results in this short-term group were compared with those in 34 patients with well-controlled, longer-term T1D (duration ≥5 years), matched for age and A1C with the short-term T1D group, and with those in 26 age-matched nondiabetic individuals.
Results: Despite matching for A1C, and therefore similar mean sensor glucose levels in the two T1D groups, short-term T1D participants had a lower frequency of hypoglycemia (0.3 vs. 7.6%, P < 0.001), a trend toward less hyperglycemia (17 vs. 32%, P = 0.15), and a greater percentage in the target range (median 77 vs. 60%, P = 0.02). Indeed, the percentage of sensor glucose levels ≤70 mg/dL in the short-term T1D group (0.3%) did not differ from those in the nondiabetic group (1.7%, P = 0.73). The coefficient of variation of sensor glucose levels (an index of glucose variability) was lower in short-term vs. longer-term T1D participants (27 vs. 42%, respectively, P < 0.001).
Conclusions: In youth with short-term T1D who retain residual β-cell function, there is negligible exposure to hypoglycemia and lower glucose variability than in youth with well-controlled T1D of longer duration.