Contribution of several volatile phenols and their glycoconjugates to smoke-related sensory properties of red wine

J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Mar 14;60(10):2629-37. doi: 10.1021/jf2040548. Epub 2012 Feb 28.


Guaiacol and 4-methylguaiacol are well-known as contributors to the flavor of wines made from smoke-affected grapes, but there are other volatile phenols commonly found in smoke from forest fires that are also potentially important. The relationships between the concentration of a range of volatile phenols and their glycoconjugates with the sensory characteristics of wines and model wines were investigated. Modeling of the attribute ratings from a sensory descriptive analysis of smoke-affected wines with their chemical composition indicated the concentrations of guaiacol, o-cresol, m-cresol, and p-cresol were related to smoky attributes. The best-estimate odor thresholds of these compounds were determined in red wine, together with the flavor threshold of guaiacol. Guaiacol β-D-glucoside and m-cresol β-D-glucoside in model wine were found to give rise to a smoky/ashy flavor in-mouth, and the respective free volatiles were released. The study indicated that a combination of volatile phenols and their glycosides produces an undesirable smoke flavor in affected wines. The observation of flavor generation from nonvolatile glycoconjugates in-mouth has potentially important implications.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Odorants / analysis
  • Phenols / analysis*
  • Taste*
  • Vitis / chemistry*
  • Volatile Organic Compounds / analysis*
  • Wine / analysis*


  • Phenols
  • Volatile Organic Compounds