Aims: Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) plays an important role in recruiting monocytes/macrophages to injured tubulointerstitial tissue. The present study examined whether indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin, regulates renal expression of MCP-1.
Main methods: The effect of indoxyl sulfate on the expression of MCP-1 was determined using human proximal tubular cells (HK-2 cells) and following animals: (1) Dahl salt-resistant normotensive rats (DN), (2) Dahl salt-resistant normotensive indoxyl sulfate-administered rats (DN+IS), (3) Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats (DH), and (4) Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive indoxyl sulfate-administered rats (DH+IS).
Key findings: DN+IS, DH, and DH+IS rats showed significantly increased mRNA expression of MCP-1 in the kidneys compared with DN rats. DH+IS rats tended to show increased mRNA expression of MCP-1 in the kidneys compared with DH rats. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the stimulatory effects of indoxyl sulfate on MCP-1 expression and monocyte/macrophage infiltration in the kidneys. Indoxyl sulfate upregulated mRNA and protein expression of MCP-1 in HK-2 cells. Indoxyl sulfate induced activation of ERK, p38, and JNK as well as of NF-κB and p53 in HK-2 cells. An antioxidant, and inhibitors of NF-κB, p53, ERK pathway (MEK1/2), and JNK suppressed indoxyl sulfate-induced mRNA expression of MCP-1 in HK-2 cells.
Significance: Indoxyl sulfate upregulates renal expression of MCP-1 through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activation of NF-κB, p53, ERK, and JNK in proximal tubular cells. Thus, accumulation of indoxyl sulfate in chronic kidney disease might be involved in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial injury through induction of MCP-1 in the kidneys.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.