Evidence for both innate and acquired mechanisms of protection from Plasmodium falciparum in children with sickle cell trait

Blood. 2012 Apr 19;119(16):3808-14. doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-08-371062. Epub 2012 Feb 10.

Abstract

Sickle cell trait (HbAS) is known to be protective against Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but it is unclear when during the course of infection this protection occurs and whether protection is innate or acquired. To address these questions, a cohort of 601 children 1-10 years of age were enrolled in Kampala, Uganda, and followed for 18 months for symptomatic malaria and asymptomatic parasitemia. Genotyping was used to detect and follow individual parasite clones longitudinally within subjects. Children with HbAS were protected against the establishment of parasitemia, as assessed by the molecular force of infection at older but not younger ages (at 2 years of age: incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.16; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.62-2.19; P = .6; at 9 years of age: IRR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.87; P = .01), suggesting an acquired mechanism of protection. Once parasitemic, children with HbAS were less likely to progress to symptomatic malaria, with protection again being the most pronounced at older ages (at 2 years of age: relative risk [RR] = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77-1.10; P = .3; at 9 years of age: RR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51-0.91; P = .008). Conversely, the youngest children were best protected against high parasite density (at 2 years of age: relative density = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10-0.54; P = .001; at 9 years of age: relative density = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.30-1.19; P = .14), suggesting an innate mechanism of protection against this end point.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity / immunology*
  • Age Factors
  • Antimalarials / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology*
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Malaria, Falciparum / epidemiology
  • Malaria, Falciparum / immunology*
  • Malaria, Falciparum / prevention & control
  • Mosquito Nets
  • Parasitemia / epidemiology
  • Parasitemia / immunology
  • Parasitemia / prevention & control
  • Plasmodium falciparum / genetics
  • Plasmodium falciparum / immunology*
  • Plasmodium falciparum / isolation & purification
  • Risk Factors
  • Sickle Cell Trait / epidemiology
  • Sickle Cell Trait / immunology*
  • Uganda / epidemiology

Substances

  • Antimalarials