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Randomized Controlled Trial
, 108 (5), 784-91

Compartmental Pharmacokinetics of Nefopam During Mild Hypothermia

Randomized Controlled Trial

Compartmental Pharmacokinetics of Nefopam During Mild Hypothermia

T Podranski et al. Br J Anaesth.


Background: Nefopam is a non-opioid, non-steroidal, centrally acting analgesic which has an opioid-sparing effect. It also reduces the threshold (triggering core temperature) for shivering without causing sedation or respiratory depression. The drug is therefore useful as both an analgesic and to facilitate induction of therapeutic hypothermia. However, compartmental pharmacokinetics during hypothermia are lacking for nefopam.

Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, blinded study in eight volunteers. On two different occasions, one of two nefopam concentrations was administered and more than 30 arterial blood samples were gathered during 12 h. Plasma concentrations were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to investigate the pharmacokinetics of nefopam with non-linear mixed-effect modelling.

Results: A two-compartment mammillary model with moderate inter-individual variability and inter-occasional variability independent of covariates was found to best describe the data [mean (SE): V(1)=24.13 (2.8) litre; V(2)=183.34 (13.5) litre; Cl(el)=0.54 (0.07) litre min(-1); Cl(dist)=2.84 (0.42) litre min(-1)].

Conclusions: The compartmental data set describing a two-compartment model was determined and could be implemented to drive automated pumps. Thus, work load could be distributed to a pump establishing and maintaining any desired plasma concentration deemed necessary for a treatment with therapeutical hypothermia.

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