A Comprehensive Review of Apples and Apple Components and Their Relationship to Human Health

Adv Nutr. 2011 Sep;2(5):408-20. doi: 10.3945/an.111.000513. Epub 2011 Sep 6.

Abstract

There has been an increasing appreciation and understanding of the link between dietary fruit and vegetable intake and improved health in humans. The widespread and growing intake of apples and apple juice/products and their rich phytochemical profile suggest their important potential to affect the health of the populations consuming them. This review summarizes current clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data and builds upon earlier published reports that apple may reduce the risk of chronic disease by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling effects. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer's disease. Recent work suggests that these products may also be associated with improved outcomes related to cognitive decline of normal aging, diabetes, weight management, bone health, pulmonary function, and gastrointestinal protection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging / drug effects*
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Asthma / prevention & control
  • Beverages*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Diabetes Mellitus / prevention & control
  • Diet
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / chemically induced
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Malus / chemistry*
  • Models, Animal
  • Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Risk Factors
  • Weight Loss / drug effects

Substances

  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts