Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol is associated with diabetic retinopathy in Type 2 diabetes

Diabet Med. 2012 Sep;29(9):1184-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03613.x.


Aims: To determine whether there is a relationship between 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), a marker of postprandial hyperglycaemia and glycaemic variability, and the presence of diabetic retinopathy and albuminuria in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Five hundred and sixty-seven patients with Type 2 diabetes (serum creatinine < 133 μmol/l), who were enrolled in the Seoul Metro-City Diabetes Prevention Program (SMC-DPP), were cross-sectionally assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results: After controlling for age, sex, binary HbA(1c) levels, duration of diabetes, triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, history of hypertension and dyslipidaemia, and the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker medication, the odds ratios (95% CI) of diabetic retinopathy were 2.86 (1.12-7.25) for the first (lowest) quartile of 1,5-anhydroglucitol, 2.87 (1.25-6.61) for the second quartile and 0.88 (0.35-2.22) for the third quartile compared with the fourth quartile (P for trend = 0.010). Conversely, the associations between 1,5-anhydroglucitol and clinical albuminuria were non-significant after adjustment. Subjects with low 1,5-anhydroglucitol (< 10.0 μg/ml) were more likely to experience diabetic retinopathy than those with high 1,5-anhydroglucitol (≥ 10.0 μg/ml) under moderate glucose control (HbA(1c) < 8%, 64 mmol/mol) and there were no significant differences in the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy between the subgroup with HbA(1c) < 8% (64 mmol/mol) and low 1,5-anhydroglucitol and the subgroup with HbA(1c) ≥ 8% (64 mmol/mol).

Conclusions: 1,5-Anhydroglucitol levels show close associations with diabetic retinopathy, especially among patients under moderate glucose control, but not with albuminuria. These results suggest that 1,5-anhydroglucitol might be a complementary marker for targeting higher risk group.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Albuminuria / blood
  • Albuminuria / epidemiology
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Deoxyglucose / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / blood*
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Republic of Korea
  • Risk Factors


  • Biomarkers
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • 1,5-anhydroglucitol
  • Deoxyglucose