Objective: To find the major risk factors associated with gastric cardia cancer.
Methods: We selected five high incidence areas of esophageal cancer and gastric cancer which have cancer registration system, i.e. Cixian and Shexian of Hebei Province, Linxian of Henan Province, Feicheng of Shandong Province and Zhuanghe of Liaoning Province. Fifty newly diagnosed cases of cardiac cancer after January 1, 2008 were selected from each cancer registration database. A uniform questionnaire, which was fully consulted by experts, was used. Population-based 1:3 case-control study was conducted in those areas. The study recruited 250 cases of cardiac cancer and 750 matched controls, which were investigated with the uniform questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed by fitting-conditional Logistic analysis.
Results: Smoking, passive smoking, alcohol drinking, irregular meal, improper dining posture, heavy taste, dried food, pickled food, fried food, hot food, gastrointestinal history, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can increase the risk of cardiac cancer. To eat more bean and high BMI are protective factors of the single factor logistic analysis. Gastrointestinal history (OR = 42.899), dried food (OR = 5.932), irregular meal (OR = 4.911), hot food (OR = 4.144), pickled food (OR = 3.287), passive smoking (OR = 2.355), and GERD (OR = 1.930) can increase the risk of cardiac cancer, eat more bean (OR = 0.254) and BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.492) are protective factors of the mixture factors logistic analysis.
Conclusions: Gastric cardia cancer is caused by environmental risk factors and genetic factors. Health education in high cardiac cancer incidence areas and primary prevention popularized into people's daily life will be beneficial to decreasing the incidence of gastric cardia cancer.