Singapore Med J. 2012 Feb;53(2):128-35; quiz 136.


Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in children and one of the very few life-threatening ophthalmic conditions. Genetically, the disease may be heritable or non-heritable. It can have unilateral or bilateral involvement and can present either sporadically or with a positive family history. Leukocoria and strabismus are the most common presentations. Diagnosis is made by indirect ophthalmoscopy aided by imaging techniques. Multidisciplinary management is aimed at saving lives, salvaging the globe and maintaining good vision. The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and focal treatments, such as cryotherapy, laser photocoagulation, transpupillary thermotherapy, brachytherapy and periocular chemotherapy, form the mainstay of globe preserving treatment in retinoblastoma. In developing countries, retinoblastoma is unfortunately accompanied by a high mortality rate due to delayed diagnosis made at advanced stages of the disease. Early diagnosis and timely management are vital for a good prognosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Humans
  • Retina / pathology
  • Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Retinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Retinal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Retinoblastoma / diagnosis
  • Retinoblastoma / pathology
  • Retinoblastoma / therapy*