Purpose: Hypomagnesemia associated with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy has been documented in case reports. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the association between PPI use and serum magnesium (Mg) levels or hypomagnesemia.
Methods: Data were extracted from hospitalized adults with basic metabolic panels and/or serum magnesium levels available during the hospital stays. The first Mg value was used for data analysis. Hypomagnesemia is defined as levels less than 1.7 mg/dL (or 0.70 mmol/L). Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between PPI use and Mg levels or hypomagnesemia, respectively.
Results: Among study patients, PPI users (n = 207) had a mean Mg level of 1.91[SD = 0.34] mg/dL, and non-users (n = 280) 2.00 (0.30) mg/dL, p = 0.004. PPI use was associated with lower serum Mg levels (adjusted coefficient β = -0.10, 95% CI = [-0.16, -0.04]) after adjusting for confounders. PPI use was associated with risk of hypomagnesemia after adjusting for confounders (adjusted OR = 2.50, 95% CI = [1.43, 4.36]). Both standard (1) and high (2 or higher) defined daily dose units of PPI therapy were associated with hypomagnesemia.
Conclusions: PPI use was associated with lower serum Mg levels and hypomagnesemia in a population of hospitalized adult patients. Our study supports the general notion that long-term PPI use could be associated with sub-clinical Mg insufficiency or deficiency status.
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.