On Bernard Sarnat's 100th birthday: pathology and management of craniosynostosis

J Craniofac Surg. 2012 Jan;23(1):105-12. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e318240fb0d.


The focus on nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, the most common type of isolated craniosynostosis, is sagittal, followed by unilateral coronal, bilateral coronal, metopic, and lambdoid, in order of decreasing frequency. Certain forms of craniosynostosis display a sex predilection. For example, boys outnumber girls in a 4:1 ratio in sagittal synostosis, but girls outnumber boys in a 3:2 ratio in unilateral coronal synostosis. Other forms, such as metopic, lambdoid, and bilateral coronal synostosis, demonstrate no sex dominances tract.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cranial Sutures / abnormalities
  • Craniosynostoses / etiology*
  • Craniosynostoses / genetics
  • Craniosynostoses / surgery
  • Frontal Bone / abnormalities
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / physiology
  • Occipital Bone / abnormalities
  • Parietal Bone / abnormalities
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods


  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins