Background: Component-resolved allergy diagnostics enables the detection of crossreactive or species-specific allergen components. This study analysed Immunoglobulin E (IgE) profiles to single allergen components in relation to bronchial inflammation in severe childhood asthma.
Methods: Ninety-five schoolchildren were assessed, 39 with controlled mild-to-moderate asthma and 56 uncontrolled severe asthmatics. Allergen components (n = 111) of food allergens, pollen and perennial aeroallergens were analysed using an immunosolid-phase allergen chip. Blood eosinophils (10(9) × l(-1)), bronchial inflammation (FeNO, ppb), lung function (FEV(1)%) and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) (dose-response slope of methacholine challenge) were measured.
Results: A specific IgE response to more than three animal-derived components--lipocalin (nMus m 1, rEqu c 1, Fel d 4, rCan f 1, 2), kallikrein (rCan f 5) and secretoglobin (rFel d 1)--was more common among severe asthmatics compared to children with controlled asthma (n = 14 vs n = 3, P = 0.030). These subjects also displayed higher blood eosinophils (0.65 vs 0.39, P = 0.021), higher Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (38 ppb vs 25 ppb, P = 0.021) and increased BHR (112 vs 28, P = 0.002) compared to other severe asthmatics positive to fewer lipocalin/kallikrein/secretoglobin components. Among all sensitized subjects, there were correlations between specific IgE levels for rFel d 4 and nMus m 1 (r = 0.751, P ≤ 0.001) and for rFel d 4 and rEqu c 1 (r = 0.850, P ≤ 0.001).
Conclusion: Multi-sensitization towards lipocalin, kallikrein and secretoglobin components is associated with increased bronchial inflammation in severe asthmatics. In addition, crossreactive patterns were observed between different lipocalin components.
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.