Memory enhancement: consolidation, reconsolidation and insulin-like growth factor 2

Trends Neurosci. 2012 May;35(5):274-83. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2011.12.007. Epub 2012 Feb 14.


Life and societies would change significantly if memory capacity or persistence in health and disease could be enhanced. It has been known for many years that memory can be improved and strengthened. Substances known to enhance memory include hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and metabolic substrates. Recently, attention has been given to identifying the molecular mechanisms and targets whereby memory enhancement can be achieved. One approach would be to target the physiological changes that are induced by learning and naturally required for memory strengthening via consolidation and reconsolidation. Here, we review approaches that boost memories by targeting the cAMP response element binding protein-CCAAT enhancer binding protein (CREB-C/EBP) pathway and/or its recently identified target gene insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2).

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / physiology*
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism*
  • Memory / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology


  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor II