Objective: The authors retrospectively studied the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of 71 cases of visceral leishmaniasis from 1998 to 2009.
Population and methods: The diagnosis was made by finding Leishmania amastigotes in bone marrows smears and/or by serology.
Results: Most cases occur in winter (35.2%) and in spring (36.6%). The source areas are endemic ones located in the north of Algeria (74.6%) and more rarely arid or semi-arid climate areas (8.4%). 88.7% of patients are children. The sex ratio is 1.53. The clinical characteristics are: fever (77.4%), paleness (43.6%); splenomegaly (83%), hepatomegaly (57.7%). The biological anomalies are: anemia (56.3%), thrombocytopenia (33.8%), and leucopenia (28.1%). N-methylglucamine (Glucantime(®)) was most often prescribed (70.4%). Four deaths (5.6%) were recorded.
Conclusion: Visceral leishmaniasis remains a pediatric affection but does not spare adults.
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