Skiing economy and efficiency in recreational and elite cross-country skiers

J Strength Cond Res. 2013 May;27(5):1239-52. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31824f206c.


The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare skiing economy and gross efficiency in cross-country skiers of different performance levels, ages and genders; male recreational skiers and elite senior and junior cross-country skiers of both genders. The skiers performed tests involving roller skiing on a treadmill using the gear 3 and diagonal stride techniques. The elite cross-country skiers were found to have better skiing economy and higher gross efficiency (5-18%) compared with the recreational skiers (p < 0.05) and the senior elite had better economy and higher efficiency (4-5%) than their junior counterparts (p < 0.05), whereas no differences could be found between the genders. Also, large ranges in economy and gross efficiency were found in all groups. It was concluded that, in addition to V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, skiing economy and gross efficiency have a great influence on the differences in performance times between recreational and junior and senior elite cross-country skiers, as well as between individual skiers within the different categories. Thus, we recommend cross-country skiers at all performance levels to test not only V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, but also skiing economy and efficiency.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Athletic Performance / physiology*
  • Energy Metabolism / physiology*
  • Exercise Test / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Oxygen Consumption
  • Physical Endurance / physiology*
  • Sex Factors
  • Skiing / physiology*
  • Spirometry
  • Young Adult