Aims: In the absence of adequate aspirate films and touch imprints, distinction of chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) from acute myeloid leukaemia with monocytic differentiation (Mo-AML) may be difficult solely on the basis of bone marrow biopsy morphological features. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of a novel immunohistochemical panel for the diagnosis of acute and chronic myelomonocytic leukaemias in bone marrow biopsies.
Methods and results: Immunohistochemical labelling for CD14, CD123, CD33, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and CD68R was assessed in 49 myeloid neoplasms with monocytic differentiation (24 CMMLs and 25 Mo-AMLs) and compared with that of 15 non-monocytic acute myeloid leukaemias (NM-AMLs) and 17 non-neoplastic controls. More than 20% CD14 immunohistochemistry (IHC)+ cells were seen only in Mo-AMLs and CMMLs, although Mo-AMLs showed wide variability and overlapped with other categories. More than 20% CD68R IHC+ cells had the highest sensitivity and specificity for Mo-AML. Discrepant MPO-/CD33+ expression was specific for Mo-AML but insensitive. A subset of blasts in Mo-AMLs and NM-AMLs were weakly CD123+.
Conclusions: A significantly increased number of CD14+ cells raises the possibility of a myelomonocytic neoplasm but does not distinguish between CMML and Mo-AML. Significantly increased numbers of CD68R IHC+ cells and a discrepant MPO-/CD33+ staining pattern are specific for Mo-AML but are best utilized in a comprehensive panel.
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.