Glaucoma 2.0: neuroprotection, neuroregeneration, neuroenhancement

Ophthalmology. 2012 May;119(5):979-86. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.11.003. Epub 2012 Feb 18.


Glaucoma is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) associated with characteristic axon degeneration in the optic nerve. Clinically, our only method of slowing glaucomatous loss of vision is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP), but lowering IOP is only partially effective and does not address the underlying susceptibility of RGCs to degeneration. We review the recent steps forward in our understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma and discuss how this understanding has given us a next generation of therapeutic targets by which to maintain RGC survival, protect or rebuild RGC connections in the retina and brain, and enhance RGC function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cell Survival
  • Glaucoma / drug therapy
  • Glaucoma / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure / drug effects
  • Nerve Regeneration / physiology*
  • Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Retinal Ganglion Cells / physiology*


  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Neuroprotective Agents