We describe the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of citronellol (CT) in rodents. CT, a monoterpene alcohol, is a naturally occurring monoterpene compound prevalent in essential oils of various aromatic plant species, such as Cymbopogon citratus. In mice, when evaluated against acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing, CT (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced (P < 0.001) the amount of writhing compared to the control group. In the formalin test, CT also significantly inhibited both the early (neurogenic pain) and the late (inflammatory pain) phases of formalin-induced licking (P < 0.001). When assessed in a thermal model of pain, CT (100 mg/kg, i.p.) caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the latency response on the hot-plate test. Such results were unlikely to be caused by motor abnormality. The anti-inflammatory activity of CT was investigated through carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice. Pretreatment with CT was able to inhibit both neutrophil infiltration and the increase in TNF-α level in the exudates from carrageenan-induced pleurisy. In in vitro experiments, CT (1 and 100 μg/ml) also decreased nitric oxide production by LPS-stimulated macrophage. Together, these results indicate that CT is effective as an analgesic compound in various pain models, with its action probably mediated by the inhibition of peripheral mediators as well as central inhibitory mechanisms that could be related to its strong antioxidant effect observed in vitro.