Development and psychometric evaluation of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II

J Couns Psychol. 2012 Apr;59(2):274-87. doi: 10.1037/a0027310. Epub 2012 Feb 20.


The original Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS; Robitschek, 1998) was unidimensional, despite theory identifying multiple components (e.g., cognition and behavior) of personal growth initiative (PGI). The present research developed a multidimensional measure of the complex process of PGI, while retaining the brief and psychometrically sound properties of the original scale. Study 1 focused on scale development, including theoretical derivation of items, assessing factor structure, reducing number of items, and refining the scale length using samples of college students. Study 2 consisted of confirmatory factor analysis with 3 independent samples of college students and community members. Lastly, Study 3 assessed test-retest reliability over 1-, 2-, 4-, and 6-week periods and tests of concurrent and discriminant validity using samples of college students. The final measure, the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (PGIS-II), includes 4 subscales: Readiness for Change, Planfulness, Using Resources, and Intentional Behavior. These studies provide exploratory and confirmatory evidence for the 4-factor structure, strong internal consistency for the subscales and overall score across samples, acceptable temporal stability at all assessed intervals, and concurrent and discriminant validity of the PGIS-II. Future directions for research and clinical practice are discussed.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological*
  • Adult
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intention
  • Likelihood Functions
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders / rehabilitation*
  • Psychological Tests*
  • Psychometrics
  • Psychotherapy*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States