Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is a major lipid-soluble chain-breaking antioxidant in humans and mammals and plays an important role in normal development and physiology. The localization of α-tocopherol within the highly unsaturated phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes provides a means of controlling lipid oxidation at the initiation site. Mitochondria are the site for major oxidative processes and are important in fat oxidation and energy production, but a side effect is leakage of reactive oxygen species. Thus, incorporation of α-tocopherol and other antioxidants into mitochondria and other cellular compartments is important in order to maintain oxidative stability of the membrane-bound lipids and prevent damage from the reactive oxygen species. Many studies regarding mitochondrial disease and dysfunction have been performed in relation to deficiency of vitamin E and other antioxidants, whereas relatively sparse information is available regarding the eventual beneficial effects of antioxidant-enriched mitochondria in terms of health and function. This may be due to the fact that only little scientific information is available concerning the effect of supranutritional supplementation with antioxidants on their incorporation into mitochondria and other cellular membranes. The purpose of this review is therefore to briefly summarize experimental data performed with dietary vitamin E treatments in relation to the deposition of α-tocopherol in mitochondria and microsomes.