Rhythmic synchronization tapping to an audio-visual metronome in budgerigars

Sci Rep. 2011;1:120. doi: 10.1038/srep00120. Epub 2011 Oct 17.


In all ages and countries, music and dance have constituted a central part in human culture and communication. Recently, vocal-learning animals such as parrots and elephants have been found to share rhythmic ability with humans. Thus, we investigated the rhythmic synchronization of budgerigars, a vocal-mimicking parrot species, under controlled conditions and a systematically designed experimental paradigm as a first step in understanding the evolution of musical entrainment. We trained eight budgerigars to perform isochronous tapping tasks in which they pecked a key to the rhythm of audio-visual metronome-like stimuli. The budgerigars showed evidence of entrainment to external stimuli over a wide range of tempos. They seemed to be inherently inclined to tap at fast tempos, which have a similar time scale to the rhythm of budgerigars' natural vocalizations. We suggest that vocal learning might have contributed to their performance, which resembled that of humans.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Acoustic Stimulation
  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal / physiology*
  • Biological Evolution
  • Conditioning, Operant / physiology
  • Dancing / physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Models, Biological
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Music
  • Parakeets / physiology*
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Species Specificity
  • Vocalization, Animal / physiology