Addiction in developmental perspective: influence of conduct disorder severity, subtype, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on problem severity and comorbidity in adults with opioid dependence

J Addict Dis. 2012;31(1):45-59. doi: 10.1080/10550887.2011.642756.


This retrospective cross-sectional study examines whether conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are associated with problem severity and psychiatric comorbidity in 193 middle-aged, opioid-dependent patients. Conduct disorder history, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, psychiatric comorbidity, and problem severity were assessed by structured interviews and validated instruments. A conduct disorder history was confirmed in 116 (60.1%) participants. Conduct disorder patients had significantly higher problem severity scores, more frequent comorbid substance use disorders, and more severe psychiatric comorbidity. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was found to increase the risk for psychiatric comorbidity. Conduct disorder persistence is a useful model for elucidating complex psychiatric comorbidity of opioid-dependent patients.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / complications*
  • Conduct Disorder / complications*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Narcotics / poisoning
  • Opioid-Related Disorders / psychology*
  • Opioid-Related Disorders / rehabilitation
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors


  • Narcotics