Biomarkers have many potential applications in oncology, including risk assessment, screening, differential diagnosis, determination of prognosis, prediction of response to treatment, and monitoring of progression of disease. Because of the critical role that biomarkers play at all stages of disease, it is important that they undergo rigorous evaluation, including analytical validation, clinical validation, and assessment of clinical utility, prior to incorporation into routine clinical care. In this review we address key steps in the development of biomarkers, including ways to avoid introducing bias and guidelines to follow when reporting results of biomarker studies.
Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.