Background: The outlook for patients with refractory and relapsed acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) is poor. CD22 is highly expressed in patients with ALL. Inotuzumab ozogamicin is a CD22 monoclonal antibody conjugated to the toxin calecheamicin. We did a phase 2 study to assess the efficacy of this antibody.
Methods: We recruited patients at the MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA, between June, 2010, and March, 2011. Adults and children with refractory and relapsed ALL were eligible. Ten adults were treated before enrolment of children started. Patients were given 1·8 mg/m(2) inotuzumab ozogamicin intravenously over 1 h every 3-4 weeks (the first three adults and three children received 1·3 mg/m(2) in the first course). The primary endpoint was overall response (complete response or marrow complete response with no recovery of platelet count or incomplete recovery of neutrophil and platelet counts). Analysis was done by intention to treat. This study is registered, number NCT01134575.
Findings: 49 patients were enrolled and treated. Median age was 36 years (range 6-80). CD22 was expressed in more than 50% of blasts in all patients. The median number of courses was two (range one to five) and the median time between courses was 3 weeks (range 3-6). Nine (18%) patients had complete response, 19 (39%) had marrow complete response, 19 (39%) had resistant disease, and two (4%) died within 4 weeks of starting treatment. The overall response rate was 57% (95% CI 42-71). The most frequent adverse events during course one of treatment were fever (grade 1-2 in 20 patients, grade 3-4 in nine), hypotension (grade 1-2 in 12 patients, grade 3 in one), and liver-related toxic effects (bilirubin: grade 1-2 in 12 patients, grade 3 in two; raised aminotransferase concentration: grade 1-2 in 27 patients, grade 3 in one).
Interpretation: Inotuzumab ozogamicin shows promise as a treatment for refractory and relapsed ALL.
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