Background: This phase I dose-escalation study investigated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics (PDs), and preliminary antitumor activity of BGT226, a potent, oral dual phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor.
Patients and methods: Fifty-seven patients with advanced solid tumors received BGT226 2.5-125 mg/day three times weekly (TIW). Dose escalation was guided by an adaptive Bayesian logistic regression model with overdose control. Assessments included response per RECIST, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, and phosphorylated-S6 in skin and paired tumor samples.
Results: Three patients (125 mg cohort) had dose-limiting toxic effects (grade 3 nausea/vomiting, diarrhea). BGT226-related adverse events included nausea (68%), diarrhea (61%), vomiting (49%), and fatigue (19%). BGT226 demonstrated rapid absorption, variable systemic exposure, and a median half-life of 6-9 h. Seventeen patients (30%) had stable disease (SD) as best response. Nine patients had SD for ≥16 weeks. Thirty patients (53%) achieved stable metabolic disease as assessed by [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography; however, no correlation between metabolic response and tumor shrinkage according to computed tomography was observed. PD changes suggested PI3K pathway inhibition but were inconsistent.
Conclusions: The MTD of BGT226 was 125 mg/day TIW, and the clinically recommended dose was 100 mg/day TIW. Limited preliminary antitumor activity and inconsistent target inhibition were observed, potentially due to low systemic exposure.