Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped bacterial strains were isolated from multiple blood cultures of patients with endocarditis, meningitis and spondylodiscitis. The isolates were tentatively identified as viridans streptococci on the basis of phenotypic characteristics. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies showed that the organisms were members of the Streptococcus mitis group but did not correspond to any recognized species. The nearest phylogenetic relative was S. mitis ATCC 49456(T), with 98.6% sequence similarity. The representative strain AZ_3a(T) showed less than 96.8, 97.6, 94.5 and 95.5% similarity to the phylogenetically most closely related species by recA, rpoB, sodA and groEL gene sequence analysis, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization analyses showed a low reassociation value of 32.2% between strain AZ_3a(T) and S. mitis DSM 12643(T). Reassociation values with members of other S. mitis group species ranged from 27.3 to 49.7%. The G+C content of the DNA was 40.0 mol%. Based on our biochemical and molecular analyses, the isolates represent a novel species, for which the name Streptococcus tigurinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AZ_3a(T) ( = CCOS 600(T) = DSM 24864(T)).