Changes in gastrointestinal hormone responses, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell function within 2 weeks after gastric bypass in non-diabetic subjects

Obes Surg. 2012 Jul;22(7):1084-96. doi: 10.1007/s11695-012-0621-4.


Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes profound changes in secretion of gastrointestinal hormones and glucose metabolism. We present a detailed analysis of the early hormone changes after RYGB in response to three different oral test meals designed to provide this information without causing side effects (such as dumping).

Methods: We examined eight obese non-diabetic patients before and within 2 weeks after RYGB. On separate days, oral glucose tolerance tests (25 or 50 g glucose dissolved in 200 mL of water) and a liquid mixed meal test (200 mL 300 kcal) were performed. We measured fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, total and intact glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), peptide YY(3-36) (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), total and active ghrelin, gastrin, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), amylin, leptin, free fatty acids (FFA), and registered postprandial dumping. Insulin sensitivity was measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance.

Results: Fasting glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and PYY were significantly decreased and FFA was elevated postoperatively. Insulin sensitivity increased after surgery. The postprandial response increased for C-peptide, GLP-1, GLP-2, PYY, CCK, and glucagon (in response to the mixed meal) and decreased for total and active ghrelin, leptin, and gastrin, but were unchanged for GIP, amylin, PP, and somatostatin after surgery. Dumping symptoms did not differ before and after the operation or between the tests.

Conclusions: Within 2 weeks after RYGB, we found an increase in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Responses of appetite-regulating intestinal hormones changed dramatically, all in the direction of reducing hunger.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Appetite
  • C-Peptide / blood
  • Cholecystokinin / blood
  • Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic
  • Female
  • Gastric Bypass*
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / blood
  • Gastrins / blood
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones / blood*
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones / metabolism
  • Ghrelin / blood
  • Glucagon / blood
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / blood
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 / blood
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Insulin Secretion
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / metabolism*
  • Islet Amyloid Polypeptide / blood
  • Leptin / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity, Morbid / blood
  • Obesity, Morbid / metabolism*
  • Obesity, Morbid / surgery
  • Pancreatic Polypeptide / blood
  • Peptide YY / blood
  • Postprandial Period
  • Somatostatin / blood
  • Time Factors
  • Weight Loss*


  • C-Peptide
  • Gastrins
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones
  • Ghrelin
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 2
  • Insulin
  • Islet Amyloid Polypeptide
  • Leptin
  • Peptide YY
  • Somatostatin
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • Pancreatic Polypeptide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Glucagon
  • Cholecystokinin