Objectives: To evaluate the reliability and cluster structure of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Type 1 Diabetes Module 3.0 (PedsQL-T1DM) and associated subscales and to explore the associations between PedsQL-T1DM total score and demographic and clinical characteristics and clinical indicators among a large racially/ethnically diverse cohort of youth with type 1 diabetes.
Study design: Principal components analysis was conducted on responses from the PedsQL-T1DM child self-report forms completed by SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study participants aged ≥ 5 years. Multivariate linear regression models were fit to examine the associations among PedsQL-T1DM total score, demographic and clinical characteristics, and clinical indicators.
Results: The sample comprised 2602 youth with a mean age of 13.6 ± 4.1 years and a mean T1DM duration of 62.1 ± 47.0 months. Principal components analysis did not support the 5 existing PedsQL-T1DM subscales. In multivariate analyses, the PedsQL-T1DM total score was negatively and significantly associated with younger age (5-7 years), female sex, receiving insulin by injection (vs pump), having parents without a college degree, Medicaid/Medicare insurance, and having a comorbid medical condition. Youth with poor glycemic control based on their age-specific hemoglobin A1c target values and those with depressive symptoms had significantly lower PedsQL-T1DM scores than their counterparts with good control and no or limited depressive symptoms.
Conclusion: This study has identified sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of youth with T1DM more likely to experience poor diabetes-specific quality of life. The association of lower PedsQL-T1DM scores with depressive symptoms and poor glycemic control is especially concerning and may be the focus of future interventions and studies.
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