Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a complex syndrome caused by the inhalation of environmental antigens. Chronic HP may mimic other fibrotic lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Recognition of the antigen is important for diagnosis; avoidance of further exposure is critical for treatment. Fibrosis on biopsy or high-resolution computed tomography is a predictor of increased mortality. Additional research is needed to understand why the disease develops only in a minority of exposed individuals and why cases of chronic HP may progress without further antigen exposure.
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