Assessing gender identity concerns in children and adolescents: evaluation, treatments, and outcomes

Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2012 Apr;14(2):111-20. doi: 10.1007/s11920-012-0259-x.


Child and adolescent psychiatrists are increasingly evaluating youth who present with gender-nonconforming behaviors and identities. The lack of discipline-specific guidelines has made assessment and treatment of children and adolescents presenting with these concerns more difficult. Several new guidelines have recently been published, and research efforts are advancing to broaden the scope of understanding of gender identity assessment and treatment in children and adolescents. Familiarity with the latest standards of care, recent research advances, and current knowledge gaps is important to help improve clinical competency in treating mental health issues in this population.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Estrogens / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Gender Identity*
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Psychotherapy / methods
  • Puberty / drug effects
  • Puberty / psychology
  • Testosterone / administration & dosage
  • Transsexualism / diagnosis*
  • Transsexualism / psychology
  • Transsexualism / therapy*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Estrogens
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • Testosterone