Obesity has been associated with low-grade systemic inflammation and with micronutrient deficiencies. Obese individuals have been found to have lower vitamin A levels and lower vitamin A intake compared with normal-weight individuals. Vitamin A plays a major role in the immune function, including innate immunity, cell-mediated immunity and humoral antibody immunity. It has also been recognised recently that vitamin A has important regulatory functions. Vitamin A status has an important effect on the chronic inflammatory response. Vitamin A deficiency increases a T-helper type 1 (Th1) response, elevates levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, increases the expression of leptin, resistin and uncoupling proteins (UCP) and promotes adipogenesis. The effect of vitamin A deficiency on obesity might be increasing the risk of fat deposition and also the risk of chronic inflammation associated with obesity. Supplementation with vitamin A in vitro and in animal models has been found to reduce concentrations of adipocytokines, such as leptin and resistin. In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency increases a Th1 response in the presence of obesity and thus, increases the inflammatory process involved in chronic inflammation and fat deposition. The metabolism of leptin and other adipocytokines may play a critical role in the effect of vitamin A deficiency in the inflammatory response observed in obesity.