Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcomes of surgical resection, especially bilobectomy, after chemoradiation therapy to treat stage IIIA-N2 non-small-cell lung cancer.
Methods: Data from all patients who underwent surgical resection after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for stage IIIA-N2 non-small-cell lung cancer between 1998 and 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. The chemotherapy regimen consisted of weekly paclitaxel plus cisplatin or weekly paclitaxel plus carboplatin for 5 weeks. The concurrent thoracic radiotherapy dose was 45 Gy over 5 weeks. Surgical resection was planned at around 4 weeks following the completion of neoadjuvant therapy.
Results: Of 186 patients who underwent neoadjuvant therapy, 23 bilobectomies, 28 pneumonectomies, and 135 lobectomies were performed. The early postoperative mortality rate (within 30 days after operation) was 7.1, 8.7, and 1.5% for the pneumonectomy, bilobectomy, and lobectomy groups, respectively. The late postoperative mortality rate (within 90 days) of the lobectomy, bilobectomy, and pneumonectomy groups was 5.9, 13, and 10.7%, respectively. Overall survival was significantly higher among patients treated by lobectomy than among those treated by bilobectomy (p = 0.041) or pneumonectomy (p = 0.010). Recurrence was significantly lower in patients treated by lobectomy than in those treated by pneumonectomy (p = 0.034).
Conclusions: Bilobectomy is associated with high operative mortality and poor long-term survival after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy for stage IIIA-N2 non-small-cell lung cancer. The outcomes of bilobectomy were similar to those of pneumonectomy in terms of overall survival, disease-free survival, and postoperative mortality.