This paper presents the findings on depressive symptomatology and major depressive disorder in Cuban American respondents to the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES). The HHANES represents the first population-based assessment of the mental health status of Cuban Americans. High levels of depression, as measured by a CES-D score of 16 or more, were found in ten percent of the sample. Female gender was independently associated with CES-D caseness. The lifetime, six-month, and one-month prevalence rates of major depressive disorder, as measured by the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), were 3.15%, 2.12%, and 1.50%, respectively. An income level of less than ten thousand dollars was independently associated with a lifetime diagnosis of major depression.