Background: Renal transplant recipients have an increased risk to develop human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anogenital malignancies. A clinical overview of female anogenital posttransplantation malignancies and possible multifocal premalignancies over a period of 40 years renal transplantation is presented. Additionally, the genotype-specific prevalence of HPV in these (pre)malignancies was investigated.
Methods: Data of 1023 women, who underwent a renal transplantation between 1968 and 2008, were collected. Clinical data of all female renal transplant recipients who developed anogenital malignancies were retrospectively analyzed. The histology, cytology, and distribution of genotype-specific HPV infections were analyzed in all primary anogenital tumors and possible (multifocal) premalignancies.
Results: Sixteen anogenital malignancies (1.6%) were found: vulva (n=6), cervix (n=5), and anus (n=5). Twelve of 16 patients never had a cervical smear before transplantation. The median interval between transplantation and diagnosis of malignancy was 136 months (range, 16-288 months). High-risk HPV was detected in 91.7% of investigated lesions, HPV subtype 16 predominated (54.5%). Four of seven patients with two distinct anogenital lesions had different HPV types in the lesions.
Conclusions: A high number of anogenital malignancies developed in our cohort, which are nearly all caused by HPV. Multifocal lesions within one patient frequently contained different high-risk HPV genotypes in both lesions. Our results underline the importance of anogenital screening and monitoring before and periodically after renal transplantation to prevent morbidity and mortality from anogenital malignancies.