Unmasking the immune recognition of prostate cancer with CTLA4 blockade

Nat Rev Cancer. 2012 Mar 1;12(4):289-97. doi: 10.1038/nrc3223.


Although cancer cells can be immunogenic, tumour progression is associated with the evasion of immunosurveillance, the promotion of tumour tolerance and even the production of pro-tumorigenic factors by immune cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) represents a crucial immune checkpoint, the blockade of which can potentiate anti-tumour immunity. CTLA4-blocking antibodies are now an established therapeutic approach for malignant melanoma, and clinical trials with CTLA4-specific antibodies in prostate cancer have also shown clinical activity. This treatment may provide insights into the targets that the immune system recognizes to drive tumour regression, and could potentially improve both outcome and toxicity for patients with prostate cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies / pharmacology
  • Antibodies / therapeutic use*
  • Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology
  • CTLA-4 Antigen / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • CTLA-4 Antigen / immunology
  • CTLA-4 Antigen / metabolism
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Humans
  • Immunomodulation
  • Immunotherapy
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / immunology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy*


  • Antibodies
  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • CTLA4 protein, human