Asthma and rhinitis epidemiology has wide variations around the world. The aim of this review was verify the prevalence of asthma and rhinitis in South America and report differences from other regions of the world. We reviewed studies with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) methodology in South America, Phases I and III. In South America the ISAAC Phase I ranked four countries among top ten in prevalence of asthma and three countries among top ten in prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis. ISAAC Phase III showed little changes in asthma and rhinitis prevalence in South American countries. The prevalence increases of asthma and rhinitis in South American centers indicate that the burden of both is continuing to rise, but the differences in prevalence are lessening.
Keywords: Asthma; epidemiology; rhinitis.