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Review
, 13 (7), 795-803

Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E-mediated Recessive Resistance to Plant Viruses and Its Utility in Crop Improvement

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Review

Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E-mediated Recessive Resistance to Plant Viruses and Its Utility in Crop Improvement

Aiming Wang et al. Mol Plant Pathol.

Abstract

The use of genetic resistance is considered to be the most effective and sustainable approach to the control of plant pathogens. Although most of the known natural resistance genes are monogenic dominant R genes that are predominant against fungi and bacteria, more and more recessive resistance genes against viruses have been cloned in the last decade. Interestingly, of the 14 natural recessive resistance genes against plant viruses that have been cloned from diverse plant species thus far, 12 encode the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) or its isoform eIF(iso)4E. This review is intended to summarize the current state of knowledge about eIF4E and the possible mechanisms underlying its essential role in virus infection, and to discuss recent progress and the potential of eIF4E as a target gene in the development of genetic resistance to viruses for crop improvement.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Proposed roles of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) during potyvirus infection. (A) eIF4E binds to the genome‐linked viral protein (VPg) and recruits the translation initiation apparatus for viral genome translation. (B) eIF4E, cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein and eIF4G may form a complex that binds to VPg to mediate intracellular trafficking of the viral genome for targeting to plasmodesmata for cell‐to‐cell movement and, further, for systemic infection. (C) The VPg–eIF4E complex may be involved in the suppression of eIF4E‐mediated transport of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for translation and in the disturbance of siRNA and microRNA processing in the nucleus. eIF4E, P1, VPg and HC‐Pro (helper component–proteinase) may form a complex that functions as an RNA‐silencing suppressor to safeguard virus translation/replication in the cytoplasm. 4A, 4E, 4G, 2, 3 and 5 represent eIF4A, eIF4E, eIF4G, eIF2, eIF3 and eIF5, respectively. P1, first protein; PABP, poly(A)‐binding protein.
Figure 2
Figure 2
A flowchart showing the process of generation of recessive‐based resistance in crops to a target virus via artificially induced mutagenesis and subsequent screening using new technologies, i.e. TILLING (Targeting‐Induced Local Lesions IN Genome) and next‐generation sequencing. EMS, ethyl methanesulphonate.

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