Objective: This study compares school-age outcomes among preterm (PT) (32 0/7-<34 weeks), late PT (LP) (34 0/7-<37 weeks), and full-term (FT) infants to assess cognitive sequelae of LP births.
Study design: We obtained linked birth and educational data for all nonanomalous singleton infants born 1994 through 1998 in New York City who had a third-grade standardized test score (n = 215,138).
Results: Children delivered LP and PT had 30% and 50% higher adjusted odds of needing special education than those delivered FT (adjusted odds ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.40; and adjusted odds ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-1.69). They also had lower adjusted math and English scores than those delivered FT (math: 7% and 10% of SD, respectively; English: 4% and 6% of SD). A linear association between gestational age and test scores was seen through 39 weeks' gestation.
Conclusion: There is a significant risk of developmental differences in PT and LP infants compared with FT infants.
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