Legius syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by germline loss-of-function mutations in the sprouty-related, EVH1 domain containing 1 (SPRED1) gene. The phenotype of LS is multiple café au lait macules (CALM) with other commonly reported manifestations, including intertriginous freckling, lipomas, macrocephaly, and learning disabilities including ADHD and developmental delays. Since the earliest signs of LS and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) syndrome are pigmentary findings, the two are indistinguishable and individuals with LS may meet the National Institutes of Health diagnostic criteria for NF1 syndrome. However, individuals are not known to have an increased risk for developing tumors (compared with NF1 patients). It is therefore important to fully characterize the phenotype differences between NF1 and LS because the prognoses of these two disorders differ greatly. We have developed a mutation database that characterizes the known variants in the SPRED1 gene in an effort to facilitate this process for testing and interpreting results. This database is free to the public and will be updated quarterly.
Keywords: Legius syndrome; NF1; SPRED1; database.