Racial differences in the association between gestational diabetes mellitus and risk of type 2 diabetes

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2012 Jun;21(6):628-33. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2011.3318. Epub 2012 Mar 2.

Abstract

Background: It is recognized that a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) predicts incident type 2 diabetes in women. However, it is unclear if there is a racial disparity between the association of GDM and type 2 diabetes.

Methods: We studied 1,142 women with a history of GDM and 18,856 women without a history of GDM aged 13-50 years with their first record of pregnancy in Louisiana State University Hospital-Based Longitudinal Study database between 1990 and 2009. History of GDM was used to predict incident type 2 diabetes.

Results: During a mean follow-up of 8.6 years, 1,394 women developed type 2 diabetes. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of type 2 diabetes was 6.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.73-7.43) among women with GDM compared to women without GDM. Stratification by age, race, and body mass index (BMI) gave similar results. Compared with African American and white women without a history of GDM, the relative risk for type 2 diabetes was higher in African American women than in white women with a history of GDM. Compared with non-GDM women compartments, GDM women after delivery for <1, 1.0-3.9, 4.0-5.9, 6.0-7.9, 8-9.9, and ≥10.0 years had 4.00, 5.44, 4.26, 3.16, 4.49, and 4.17 times higher risk of having type 2 diabetes, respectively.

Conclusions: A history of GDM is a strong predictor of subsequent type 2 diabetes among Louisiana women, especially among African American women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • African Continental Ancestry Group* / psychology
  • African Continental Ancestry Group* / statistics & numerical data
  • Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
  • Body Mass Index
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ethnology*
  • Diabetes, Gestational / epidemiology
  • Diabetes, Gestational / ethnology*
  • European Continental Ancestry Group* / psychology
  • European Continental Ancestry Group* / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Health Behavior / ethnology*
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Louisiana / epidemiology
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Obesity / ethnology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy Outcome / ethnology
  • Prenatal Care / statistics & numerical data
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking / ethnology
  • Social Class
  • Stress, Psychological / ethnology